The seven teachers of sacred Bukhara.

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Tour "The legends of ancient cities of Uzbekistan"

The seven teachers of sacred Bukhara

sufizmBlessed Bukhara is the cradle of many talented scientists, thinkers and poets. There are many talented people lived and worked here such of them like: Abu Hafs Kabir Narshakhi, Ibn Sina, Rudaki, Ferdousi, and many others. However, it is worth considering what would have been all of these people without faith, coverage of a guiding their way of life, their strivings, and their creativity.

Not many people know that Bukhara rightfully bears the title of "noble, the holy city of Islam" - one of the centers of formation of Sufism in Uzbekistan.

Sufism - at the very beginning (VIII-IXcenturies A.D.) is a mystical and ascetic and philosophical stream in Islam, which has the main purpose - knowledge of God, which actually were taught the followers by their Sufi teachers.

The term "Sufism" is derived from the Arabic "Sufi", which means "wearing woolen clothing," and meant the Muslim Brotherhood of mystics who followed a certain spiritual traditions, and wore a special kind of woolen garments - hair shirt as a symbol of spiritual asceticism.

"Pure" – that is another meaning of the root of the word "Sufi." It is as nothing else in the best way interprets the essence of spiritual teachings and the best looks of its followers. Genuine Sufis are really clean from the religious dogmatism and fanaticism, they are free of religious, caste or national prejudices. It is an irresistible desire for ethical purity and perfection inherent in the Sufis, led to the consolidation of them and more of the same name - "Knights of Purity" (Arabic for "Sahaba-e-Safa ').

Sufis themselves often call themselves "ahlalhakika", which means - "the people of real being" throughout the history from the century to the century they bring to the world not only their teaching but also their art that reflected their perception of life, the perception of beauty. It is exactly a Sufi symbolism, motifs and images make up a significant part of the oriental folklore, literature and poetry.

It is no exaggeration to say that almost all of Iran-Persian classical literature that is recognized around the world - is a popular handbook on the fundamentals of Sufism, almost to the same extent as the work of art. In the history of literature were entered the names of poets Sufis forever, among them there are: Khafiza, Sanai, Rumi, Nizami, Jami, Saadi, Omar Khayyam.

One of the founders of Sufism is considered al-Hasan al-Basri – who was a wonderful psychologist and theorist on the direction of "hearts and thoughts." His students and followers preached the canons of unselfish, all-encompassing love for God (mahabba, hubb) and the desire to draw closer to Him, longing for Him. Actually this was the hallmark feature of Sufi ideology and, bringing a distinct mystical touch.

The oretical and practical basis of Sufism were fully developed in the IX century, Sufi schools began to emerge, the most popular of which were: Baghdad, Basra and Khorasan. The Middle Ages brought huge popularity of the Sufi way of life, its outlook and traditions.

In Khorasan of XI-XII centuries there was formed, and then spread widely throughout the Muslim world training institute of the Sufis: "teacher" (Yishan, teacher, Sheikh) - "disciple" (murid).

For any Sufi the way of study is divided into four stages: execution of the laws of Islam - Sharia law, obedience - Tariqat, the path to knowing God - Marifat and full comprehension of the truth - Haqiqat. The people willing to take the path of Sufism are named as murids ("hungry"), or Salik, mutassavif, ahlidil. They will pass their way to perfection and knowledge of the truth under the guidance of spiritual masters, who were called as sheikhs, teachers, murshids, hodja and others since ancient times, in turn, obtained permission to study the newly converted from their spiritual mentors.

In such a way by the end of the XII century the so-called method of "silsila," based on an unbroken chain of spiritual acceptability was formed totally, and Sufism was an important element of religious life in Islamic societies.

During the Mongol conquest of Central Asia and the old cumbersome machinery of state was unable to resist the invaders. Official representatives of the clergy - ulamas and fakihs, were so weakened that Islam as state religion started to lose its positions quickly.

Exactly during these troubled times, Sufism began to occupy a dominant position and because of its ever increasing influence that has received a grand, massive, the Sufis stand at the head of the open resistance to the conquerors.

The Mongols have to reckon with a new spiritual force in the country, and at the suggestion of the kubravi sheikhs in the second half of the XIII century Bukhara begins the process of engaging the Mongol rulers into Islam.

Year after year the power of the Sufis in the country intensified more and more, they began to occupy high government posts and spiritual positions, and it is not surprising, because Sufism was not appear as heresy and opposition to Islamic tenets, and acted strictly within the framework of the Sunna and Sharia.

In the XIV-XV centuries there were a great many Sufi orders, directions and trends in Central Asia. However over the times there was a powerful force that managed to gather into one the Sufi communities of Maverannakhr.

"Hadzhagan" (Persian "Hadja" - the "master") – that was the name of self-mystical trend in Islam, which originated in Bukhara, and brought together most of the Sufi communities.

The founder of that stream and its spiritual father was born in the suburbs of Bukhara – that was Abd al-Khaliqu al-Gijduvani. In consequence, this doctrine was almost completely taken over and reorganized by the founder of the Order "Naqshbandia" - Bahauddin Naqshband.

Very soon, a Sufi brotherhood "Hadzhagan Naqshbandi" won the leading positions and become the main tenets of spiritual leadership in the society.

Its ranks have attracted a huge number of followers, most of who were people of different countries and left a bright trace in the history of the state.

The abodes of Sufis ... How many of them were in the vast stretches of Uzbekistan, and how little we know about their inhabitants and their difficult path to righteous living.

The centuries pass; the rulers are changed by each other; empires are collapsing. It seems that only in history books scant lines remain the noble men of those who put their lives not for personal benefit but for service to the highest truth.

That is why one wants to pay tribute to the spiritual fathers and mentors, who gave the idea of the order in life. This is the famous "seven teachers of Hadzhagan - Naqshbandi," who were born in the district of Bukhara, lived there their glorious lives and were buried in their beloved homeland. Their graves, built in the rank of a "sacred" and they are honored by the descendants and up to nowadays these are the places of pilgrimage for hundreds of thousands of devout Muslims around the world.

Tour "The legends of ancient cities of Uzbekistan"

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